A machine may be configured to generate one or more audio fingerprints of one or more segments of audio data. The machine may access audio data to be fingerprinted and divide the audio data into segments. For any given segment, the machine may generate a spectral representation from the segment; generate a vector from the spectral representation; generate an ordered set of permutations of the vector; generate an ordered set of numbers from the permutations of the vector; and generate a fingerprint of the segment of the audio data, which may be considered a sub-fingerprint of the audio data. In addition, the machine or a separate device may be configured to determine a likelihood that candidate audio data matches reference audio data.